All the Days of Our Lives”
November / December 2017 Vol. XVII - No 2
In This Issue ·
Nir Photo ·
6 Shehadeh articles ·
BL Hebrew project ·
Samaritan scroll ·
Ring at an auction ·
From the Editor ·
Recent Publications · Biblio
In This Issue
· Nir Photo
· 6 Shehadeh articles
· BL Hebrew project
· Samaritan scroll
· Ring at an auction
· From the Editor
· Recent Publications
On January 1, 2017, the Samaritan Community numbered 796.
It has been 3655 years since the entrance into the Holy Land
(Samaritan’s typical calendar)
The Eleventh Month 3656 - Tuesday Evening, 16 January 2018
The Twelfth Month 3656 - Thursday Evening, 15 February 2018
The Thirteenth Month 3656 - Saturday Evening, 17 March 2018
The First Month 3656 - Sunday Evening, 15 April 2018
Passover Sacrifice: Sunday evening (7:19 pm) 29 April 2018
[Calculated by: Priest Yakkiir ['Aziz] b. High Priest Jacob b. 'Azzi – Kiriat Luza, Mount Gerizim]
Facebook Post by Nir Sasony, After Sabbath Dec. 16, 2017
Six New Articles from Haseeb Shehadeh
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/miracles_in_the_synagogue.pdf
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/the_samaritan_pentateuch.pdf
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/thewarandthecolony.pdf
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/letter_of_jacob.pdf
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/the_aurthority_of_law.pdf
Continue Reading at http://shomron0.tripod.com/articles/angels_in_the_synagogue.pdf
Exciting news! Our first #scroll from #HebrewProject Phase 2 has published Or 10133 Samaritan Torah scroll fragment. Dated 1400-1499. #digitisation #Judaism http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_10133 …
BL Hebrew Project@BL_HebrewMSS 12. 21 2017 Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1300-1399; Or 8070 #Samaritan Pentateuch (fragment). http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_8070 … Image f1r #Judaism #medievaltwitter #digitisation
BL Hebrew Project @BL_HebrewMSS 12 21 2017
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1782; Add MS 19650 #Samaritan liturgy for Passover. #Arabic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Add_MS_19650 … Image f138v #digitisation #Judaism
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1908; Or 10319 Book of Joshua in #Samaritan. http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_10319 … Image f1v #digitisation #Judaism #Bible
Another beautifully bound #manuscript published #HebrewProject Phase 2 Or 1448 Samaritan liturgy for Passover. dated 1872. Images f4r & binding covers http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=1&ref=Or_1448 … #Samaritan #Arabic #digitisation #Passover
(Images below) BL Hebrew Project @BL_HebrewMSS
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1749-1787; Or 5038 Samaritan prayers for Passover. #Samaritan #Arabic #Jewish Babylonian Aramaic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_5038 … Image f103v #Passover #Digitisation
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1881. Or 2690 Samaritan prayers for the month of Nisan and Passover. #Samaritan #Arabic Look at the gorgeous layout of these folios! Images f49v f49r http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_2690 … #digitisation
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1780-1871; Or 2684 #Samaritan Pentateuch (Exodus). http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_2684 … Image f15r #digitisation #Bible #Pentateuch
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1859; Or 2080 Samaritan chronicle Kitab al-Tarikh by Abul Fath. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_2080 … Image f1v #digitisation #bilingual
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1872; Or 1449 Samaritan prayer book for Sukot. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=1&ref=Or_1449 … Images f1r & f52r #digitisation
Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1700-1866; Or 1447 Samaritan chronicle Kitab al-Tarikh by Abul Fath. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=1&ref=Or_1447 … #digitisation Image f1v
Published #HebrewProject #manuscript dataed 1901-1924; Or 10558 Samaritan prayers for Passover. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Or_10558 … Image f52r #digitisation
Follow them on Twitter
Nov. 30 Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1910; Or 10564 Samaritan burial liturgy. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic
Nov 30 Published #HebrewProject Phase 2 19th century #manuscript Or 10559 Samaritan liturgy. Languages #Samaritan #Arabic
Nov 23 Published today #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1904 ; Or 10441 Samaritan liturgy for the Ten Penitential days between New Year & the Day of Atonement
Nov 23 Published today #HebrewProject Phase 2 #manuscript dated 1909; Or 10407 Samaritan prayers; language #Samaritan
See their twitter link.
Table of Phase 2 Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts that we have digitised to date
This table shows all of the Phase 2 Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts that we have digitised to date. They can be viewed in full online by entering the shelfmark in the search box on the British Library Digitised Manuscripts website. We are live-tweeting all of the publishing for phase 2 of the project, so please follow us on Twitter @BL_HebrewMSS to see all the manuscripts as they are published online.
Also see the article: 24 NOVEMBER 2017 The latest from the British Library’s Hebrew Manuscripts Digitisation Project: Introducing Phase 2
Short List of Digitized MSS at the British Library
Add MS 7051 19th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19005 18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19007 18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19009 18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19013 18th century Samaritan Pentateuch
Add MS 19017 17-18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19651 18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19654 18th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19655 19th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 19657 18th century Samaritan commentary
Add MS 19956 16th century Book of Joshua in Arabic
Add MS 21581 15th century Samaritan Pentateuch
Add MS 22369 14th century Samaritan Pentateuch
Add MS 25880 19th century Samaritan liturgy
Add MS 26118 15-16th century Samaritan Pentateuch
Harley MS 5495 a 16th century Samaritan liturgy
Harley MS 5495 b 16th century Latin description of Samaritan manuscript
Or 10117 15th century Samaritan Pentateuch
Or 10203 20th century Samaritan Bible
Or 10431 19th century Samaritan liturgy and calendar
Search here for the digitized MSS at the British Library http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Default.aspx
A Samaritan Scroll of the Torah from 1145 AD the most ancient in North America and South America according to ben Sedaka (images post on Facebook by Troy Leaver)
‘Our Torah study group had the opportunity to visit with Ben Sedaka of the Israelite Samaritan community in Israel and David Gilner of Hebrew Union College today in Cincinnati. Pictured here is a partially burned Samaritan manuscript covering a significant portion of Deuteronomy. It dates to 1145 CE.’
Seventeenth international seminar on the care and conservation of manuscripts
Copenhagen 11th – 13th of April 2018
The University of Copenhagen Faculty of Humanities, Southern Campus
SEMINAR ROOM 15A-0-13 SESSION 3 B (15.30-17.30) CHAIR: 1. Julia Poirier: A short review of Samaritan binding practices
A baby boy was born to Genia and Yaaqob b. Priest 'Azzi b. High Priest Yaaqob Ha'abta'ee Sunday, 24.12.2017; (Facebook Post by Benny Tsedaka)
Comunidade Israelita e Amigos.
Sr. Sedaka, sábio e erudito Israelita Samaritano, descendente direto a 146 gerações de José que foi vendido por seus irmaos e levado ao Egito. ..
Ele está em São Paulo ensinando a prática da Torá e instruindo a todos que querem fazer parte de Israel, se tornando oficialmente um Israelita!
Ele está atentendo gratuitamente no hotel Maksoud Plaza na Rua Carlos do Pinhal n. 424 quarto 1924.
Essa rua é paralela com a Av. Paulista altura do Masp.
Suas raizes estão em Israel?
Venha e não perca essa grande oportunidade.
O Eterno continua reunindo os dispersos perdidos da casa de Israel.
Google Translation from Portuguese to English
Israeli Community and Friends.
Mr. Sedaka, wise and erudite Israelite Samaritan, direct descendant to 146 generations of Joseph who was sold by his brothers and taken to Egypt. ..
He is in Sao Paulo teaching the practice of the Torah and instructing all who want to become part of Israel, officially becoming an Israelite!
He is attending for free at the Maksoud Plaza Hotel in Rua Carlos do Pinhal n. 424 room 1924.
This street is parallel with Av. Paulista height of Masp.
Are your roots in Israel?
Come and do not miss this great opportunity.
The Eternal continues to gather together the lost scattered people of the house of Israel.
Est: $500 - $750
Description: Ancient Near East, Samaritan, Byzantine
Period, ca. 5th to 7th century CE. A beautiful cast bronze signet ring with
incised Samaritan script. The ring band widens slightly at the inside point. US
ring size 8.5
A Samaritan bronze ring with an Old Testament inscription in Samaritan script sold at Chistie's New York for $2,629 (Sale 1163, 12 December 2002). See http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/lot/a-samaritan-bronze-ring-byzantine-period-circa-4026261-details.aspx?from=searchresults&intObjectID=4026261&sid=8385413e-f2ba-48a9-bb6d-43436765de93
Provenance: private Florida collection acquired in the 1980's
All items legal to buy/sell under U.S. Statute covering cultural patrimony Code 2600, CHAPTER 14, and are guaranteed to be as described or your money back.
A Certificate of Authenticity will accompany all winning bids.
From The Editor
I recently found a website that I thought I would share from The Netherlands Institute for the Near East.:
NINO Collection glass slides: Palestine - Sichem
Excavations in Sichem (Nablus, Palestine) and related images
at the bottom of this link under Palestine, there are two photos of the summit of Gerizim from 1947
Here is an interesting group: Benei Yisrael, Sons of Israel, Keepers of Torah
The second group is in B’nei Mikra Mount Vernon, WA, but I find nothing on this group.
WHERE IS THE HOLY PLACE?
A video: Samaritan Museum: a trip back in time https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQMNcm5d87s
I just seen an article which appears interesting from Ronny Vollandt, ‘Jacob Georg Christian Adler (1756–1834) and His Books, in Jewish Manuscript Cultures: New Perspectives Hrsg. v. Wandrey, Irina’
Scope and content: Comprises: Letters to Thomas Witton Davies, and letters collected by him from other sources, 1819-1915 Series of postcards to and from T. Witton Davies, 1895-1904 Fragment of a Samaritan Pentateuch manuscript, not dated Professor A. Dillmann's notes for lectures on passages from Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy Manuscript of Franz Delitzsch's work Messianische Weissagungen in geschlchtlicher Folge , with some corrected proofs Miscellaneous items collected by T. Witton Davies relating to theology, including sketches, sermon notes and autographs
Davies wrote articles: The Samaritans ; The Interpretation of Scriptural Promises; 1896
Professor T. Witton-Davies presents to the Congress the translation of a MS. from the High Priest of Nablus on the History of the Samaritan people. 1891
8. The thanks of the Meeting were directed to be conveyed to Prof. T. Witton-Davies for his offer to the Congress of his translation of a Samaritan History from a MS. given him by the High Priest of Nablus, and to all who had sent in suggestions.
The papers which followed dealt with the claims of Oriental Studies on the Clergy by the Rev. C.G.K. Gillespie (already referred to), the translation of a MS. From the High Priest of Nablus on the History of the Samaritans by Rev. Prof. Witton-Davies (which will appear in the “Transactions”)
From the Editor: I have found no evidence that Davies went to Nablus and suspect that he received his Samaritan fragment from Jacob esh Shelaby on his third visit around 1888 or so. In some people’s minds this Jacob was the high priest but we know that this was not the case. It has been suggested that this was Jacob’s son inplac of him, but we now know that it was in fact Jacob, himself and that he did make 3 trips to London.
Reading the Bible in Ancient Traditions and Modern Editions: Studies in Memory of Peter W. Flint (Early Judaism and Its Literature 47) Edited by Andrew B. Perrin (Author), Kyung S. Baek (Author), Daniel K. Falk (Author) SBL Press (November 17, 2017
A collection of essays commemorating the career contributions of Peter W. Flint
An international group of scholars specializing in various disciplines of biblical studies, including the Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint, Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, Second Temple Judaism, and Christian Origins, present twenty-seven new contributions that commemorate the career of Peter W. Flint (1951-2016). Each essay interacts with and gives fresh insight into the fields shaped by Professor Flint's life work. Part one explore the interplay between text-critical methods, the growth and formation of the Hebrew Scriptures, and the making of modern critical editions. Part two maps some dynamics of scriptural interpretation and reception in ancient Jewish and Christian literatures of the Second Temple period.
· Demonstrations of how the processes of scriptural composition, transmission, and reception converge and may be studied together for mutual benefit
· Clarification of the state/forms of scripture in antiquity and how scripture was extended, rewritten, and recontextualized by ancient Jewish and Christian scribes and communities
Leviticus (Hebrew Edition) (Hebrew)
by Stefan Schorch (Editor)
To be published: March 2018
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
(Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Liebermeisterstr. 12, Tübingen, Germany)
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
Volume: 42 issue: 2, page(s): 155-175
Article first published online: November 28, 2017; Issue published: December 1, 2017
Within Persian-period Yehud the boundaries of the collective entity Israel were a matter of dispute. The debate was triggered by the question of whether the population in the area of the former Northern Kingdom should be regarded as Israelite or not. But while there was no consensus regarding their status, the same underlying criterion for defining an Israelite is used either to include or exclude the Samarians in/from Israel—not the faith in YHWH or the adherence to the law but the social construction of a common descent which finds its expression in the system of the twelve tribes of Israel. Against the widespread view, post-exilic Israel is best described as an ethnos and not as a Kultgemeinde.
The True Israelites - Who are they? By Michael Cohen October 20, 2017
Sacred Mountains. Abrahamic Religions and Musical Practices in the Mediterranean Area
A documentary by Nicola Scaldaferri (LEAV, Italy, 2017, 38')
When: Tue, Feb 13, 2018 5:30pm to 7:00pm
Location: 2121 Allston Way, Berkeley, CA
A documentary devoted to three pilgrimages to the sacred mountains of the three Abrahamic Religions. The aim is to explore the role of music practices as a way of prayer and participation, and the importance of sound in shaping and giving meaning to places. The methodology employed is based on filming and recording sound in the first person, in order to reflect the participatory experience of the author. The goal was to build a story using musical practices and sounds as integral parts of the narration, without voice-over, providing additional information and translations only in the captions. The narrative is shaped around three episodes, each devoted to a different event, following the usual moments of a pilgrimage. The Ascent: on the occasion of Shavuot, the Israelite Samaritans go to pray on Mount Gerizim, in the West Bank, where their sacred places are located. The Feast: in August, members of the brotherhood of the Bektashi climb Mount Tomorr, in Albania, where they pray near the tombs of dede, and practice the kurban (a sacrificial slaughtering of a sheep, whose meat is consumed by each participating family). The Descent: in early September, the miraculous statue of the Black Madonna of Viggiano, Queen of Lucania, in Italy, "descends" into the village for a festival.
Nicola Scaldaferri is an Associate Professor in the Department of Cultural Heritage and Environment at the University of Milan, Italy, where he founded and directs the Laboratory of Ethnomusicology and Visual Anthropology. He has done extensive ethnomusicological research in Italy, Albania, Burkina-Faso, and elsewhere, as well as research on electroacoustic in 20th century music. Prof. Scaldaferri received his Ph.D. in musicology from the University of Bologna and a degree in Composition from the Conservatory of Parma; he was a Fulbright scholar at Harvard University and a Visiting Professor at St. Petersburg State University.
Feb 9, 2017 at University of Pennsylvania see link.
Feb. 1, 2018 Harvard see link
Nicola Scaldaferri is one of the founding members of LEAV http://leavlab.com/
UNIVERSITA’ DEGLI STUDI DI MILANO- LEAV
The laboratory was established in 2005. Its basic areas of activity may be summarized in the following points:
– The use of audiovisual media, with an awareness of the implications of their use during the process of ethnographic documentation;
– A dialogic approach to research;
– The presentation of the results of the research mainly via audio, video and photography, attempting to go beyond written text as a form of narration;
– The intersections between ethnographic and artistic practices.
By Israelvalley Desk| décembre 22nd, 2017
Google translation of the article:
Coming from a small Jewish community four thousand years old, they once lived in strict endogamy. But there are so few women among them that they have had to adapt.
At the foot of Mount Garizim, on the heights bordering Nablus in the northern West Bank, the village of Kiryat Luza is a sanctuary. At first glance, nothing distinguishes it from its Palestinian neighbors: a main artery patrolling an Israeli army armored vehicle, five alleys housing white flat-roofed houses and a grocery store where men from the village gather around smoking cafes. Yet here are 300 descendants of the Samaritan community, founded four thousand years ago and living according to dictates dictated by their own interpretation of the Pentateuch (Torah).
For millennia, the Samaritans have lived in strict endogamy. Young people of marriageable age had to find a soul mate among their own, either in the village of Kiryat Luza or in Holon, a suburb of Tel Aviv, where 300 other Samaritans live. A rule introduced to preserve both the purity of this particular current of Judaism and the very existence of the community.
Tanned complexion and smiling rising under his white mustache, Benyamin Tsedaka, aka "Benny", receives in his house in the heart of the village. A figure of the community, the 73-year-old man can spend hours on the history of Samaritans with inexhaustible banter. According to him, the beginning of the twentieth century marked a turning point for his family: "We were more than a hundred, the women were so few that we risk extinguishing ourselves. In the face of this danger, community leaders decided in 1923 to allow unions between Samaritans and women born outside the congregation. On one condition: that they convert to Samaritanism. A non-negotiable prerequisite.
But where to find women who would live according to the rites of the community?
The solution came from Eastern European countries and their marriage agencies. For 30,000 shekels (a little over 7,000 euros), Yoeir Cohen was able to meet Shura, a beautiful Ukrainian twenty years her junior. From his terrace, in the middle of his guests fascinated by his story with the rose water, this prosperous 53-year-old entrepreneur tells how he met the one who became his wife.
"I did not find a woman here, so I went to Tel Aviv to the marriage agency office Jakov Nahoma. As soon as I opened the catalog, I ran into a picture of Shura. I immediately found it very beautiful and I decided to go to Ukraine. I stayed there for three days and she left with me. She could not resist, I'm Don Juan! He plucks.
The truth is actually less idyllic: in Ukraine, Shura was a student and was sorely lacking in money. More than a marriage of love, Yoeir was above all the occasion of a better life. Moreover, when talking about these women from Eastern Europe, Benny's speech suffers no ambiguity. They are there first and foremost for the community. "We love Russians or Ukrainians, because they are all very beautiful," he says without much difficulty. Its very important. It is they who make our children look so much like angels! "
Before settling in 2011 in Kiryat Luza, where she married Tamim, a 40-year-old rich Samaritan, Tania worked as an interpreter for the marriage agency Anastasia in Lviv, Ukraine. Tamim was his client. "He made love to me. He did not care about the girls I showed him in the catalogs. He only wanted me, "she recalls. Faced with so much perseverance, she ended up succumbing to his advances. Before Tamim flirted with her, Tania quickly realized that most of the customers who knocked on her door were "Jews of Israel".
All came in the same hope, attracted by the simplicity of the system set up by this type of agency. "You come, you look at the pictures of the girls," says Tania. On the back of the photos, there is all the information "useful" - measurements, eye color, number of children, possible previous marriage ... Once the selection made, the agency puts the man and the woman in contact. Each step is then paid. For example, the first appointment costs 50 dollars [42 euros]. I translated the messages from English into Ukrainian or Russian, and I also organized parties and parties for all those people in Odessa. "
There remains one outstanding question: how did these new converts adapt to their new life on Samaritan soil? Answer by Tania, honest but not sweating the absolute devotion to her new religion: "Before coming to Mount Garizim, I thought a lot, I learned well and I easily adopted the lifestyle. Finally, the only real change is that I changed my day of rest from Sunday to Saturday [Shabbat Day]. They did not turn my brain on, they take care of me. Here, I have everything from a princess. Everything, even the prince charming.
L’Islam et le génocide occulté des Hébreux samaritains
By Podkop 23 marca, 2017
C'est le premier musée dédié aux Samaritains. Il se dresse sur le mont Garizim, considéré comme l'endroit sacré où se trouvait leur temple, et permet de découvrir l'histoire et les traditions de cet ancien peuple biblique.
Das JHWH-Heiligtum am Garizim: ein archäologischer Befund und seine literar-und theologiegeschichtliche Einordnung, in: Vetus Testamentum vol. 68, 2017 1-21
Abstract: No later than the midst of the 5th century the recently discovered sanctuary on Mt.Gerizim was the cultic center of the Samarian YHWH-worshippers, later known as the Samaritans. The sanctuary was in every way comparable to its counterpart in Jerusalem. The author investigates the question why there is so little mentioning of the sanctuary in the Bible at all; only the location “Mount Gerizim” is mentioned a few times in the Tora. Albeit its obvious absence in the texts, there seem to be several, enciphered mentions of the Samaria sanctuary in the later part of the (Judean) canon (Ketubim and Nebi’im). Altogether they criticize the cult on Mt.Gerizim in this very indirect way. The author explores the texts 2 Kings 17,24-41 and 2 Chr 13 as examples for this enciphering and outlines the character of these polemics and the ideological- theological interest of the Judean authors.
Knoppers, Gary N.
‘Toward a Critical Edition of the Samaritan Pentateuch: Reflections on Issues and Methods,’ in Reading the Bible in Ancient Traditions and Modern Editions: Studies in Memory of Peter W. Flint (Early Judaism and Its Literature 47) Edited by Andrew B. Perrin (Author), Kyung S. Baek (Author), Daniel K. Falk (Author) SBL Press (November 17, 2017) 163-188.
Lim Timothy H.
‘The Emergence of the Samaritan Pentateuch’ in Reading the Bible in Ancient Traditions and Modern Editions: Studies in Memory of Peter W. Flint (Early Judaism and Its Literature 47)
Edited by Andrew B. Perrin (Author), Kyung S. Baek (Author), Daniel K. Falk (Author)
SBL Press (November 17, 2017) 89- 104
"Gemination of /R/ in Samaritan Hebrew: A Note on Phonological Diversity in Second Temple Period Hebrew." Hebrew Studies 58, no. 1 (2017): 221-235. https://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed December 24, 2017). https://muse.jhu.edu/article/678744/pdf
Abstract: In Jewish traditions of Biblical Hebrew, /r/ behaves like laryngeals and pharyngeals in that it resists gemination. Evidence from Septuagint transcriptions suggests that this lack of gemination is a late phenomenon of the post-biblical period. The Samaritan pronunciation tradition, on the other hand, attests to /rr/ in scores of forms. We offer the first comprehensive study of geminated /r/ in Samaritan Hebrew. A comparison with other traditions of Hebrew and with transcriptions allows for a fine-graded assessment of the phenomenon. It suggests that—apart from some instances of secondary development—/rr/ in Samaritan Hebrew essentially preserves an ancient trait that goes back to the biblical period. Thus, geminated /r/ represents one of the few cases in which Samaritan Hebrew is typologically older than the Tiberian tradition.
‘What Makes an Israelite an Israelite? Judean Perspectives on the Samarians in the Persian Period’ Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Vol 42, Issue 2, pp. 155 - 175
First Published November 28, 2017
Abstract: Within Persian-period Yehud the boundaries of the collective entity Israel were a matter of dispute. The debate was triggered by the question of whether the population in the area of the former Northern Kingdom should be regarded as Israelite or not. But while there was no consensus regarding their status, the same underlying criterion for defining an Israelite is used either to include or exclude the Samarians in/from Israel—not the faith in YHWH or the adherence to the law but the social construction of a common descent which finds its expression in the system of the twelve tribes of Israel. Against the widespread view, post-exilic Israel is best described as an ethnos and not as a Kultgemeinde.
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